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Jumat, 13 Juni 2014

KALIMAT AKTIVE DAN PASIVE



Menurut yang dilakukan subyeknya, kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris memiliki dua bentuk, yaitu kalimat aktif (active voice) dan kalimat pasif (passive voice).
A. ACTIVE VOICE DAN PASSIVE VOICE
1. Active Voice (Kalimat Aktif)
    Yaitu kalimat dimana subjek kalimat melakukan pekerjaan
    Contoh :
Aktif
Subject
Verb
Object
Barli
buys
a magazine.
Barli
membeli
sebuah majalah.
2. Passive Voice (Kalimat Pasif)
    Yaitu kalimat dimana subjeknya dikenai suatu pekerjaan.
    Contoh :
Pasif
Subject
Verb
Object
A magazine
is bought
by Barli.
Sebuah majalah
dibeli
oleh Barli

Jika kita membandingkan susunan kedua kalimat di atas, objek yang ada dalam kalimat aktif diubah menjadi subjek dari kalimat pasif. Hal itu juga tampak dalam susunan kalimat di bawah ini :
Subject
Verb
Object
Aktif
Everybody
drinks
Orange juice.
Pasif
Orange juice
is drunk
by everybody.

B. STRUKTUR PASSIVE VOICE
     Secara umum, susunan kalimat pasif adalah :
S + To Be + V3
    Namun, bentuk waktu "to be" tersebut harus disesuaikan dengan tensesnya, perhatikan tabel berikut :
TENSES
AKTIF
PASIF
Simple
Present
S + V1
He washes it.
S + to be 1 + V3
It is washed.
Past
S + V2
He washed it.
S + to be 2 + V3
It was washed.
Future
S + will + V1
He will wash it.
S + will be + V3
It will be washed.
Past Future
S + would + V1
He would wash it.
S + would be + V3
It would be washed.
TENSES
AKTIF
PASIF
Contonuous
Present
S + to be 1 + V-ing
He is washing it.
S + To Be 1 + being + V3
It is being washed.
Past
S + had + V3
He had washed it.
S + had been + V3
It had been washed.
Future
S + will have + V3
He will have washed it.
S + will + being + V3
It will be being washed.
Past Future
S + would + be + V-ing
He would be washing it.
S + would be being + V3
It would be being washed.
TENSES
AKTIF
PASIF
Perfect Simple
Present
S +has/have + V3
He has washed it.
S + has/have been + V3
It has been washed.
Past
S + had + V3
He had washed it.
S + had been + V3
It had been washed.
Future
S + will have + V3
He will have washed it.
S + will have been + V3
It will have been washed.
Past Future
S + would + have + V3
He would have washed.
S + would have been + V3
It would have been washed.
TENSES
AKTIF
PASIF
Perfect
Continuous
Present
S + has been + V-ing
He has been washing it.
S + has been being + V3
It has been being washed.
Past
S + had been + V-ing
He had been washig it.
S + had been being + V3
It had been being washed.
Future
S + will have been + V-ing
He will have been washing it.
S + will have been being + V3
It will have been being washed.
Past Future
S + would have been + V-ing
He would have been washing it.
S + would have been being + V3
It would have been being washed.

C. MENGUBAH KALIMAT AKTIF MENJADI KALIMAT PASIF
     Jika kita ingin mengubah kalimat aktif menjadi kalimat pasif, kita dapat melakukannya dengan mengubah objek kalimat aktifnya menjadi subjek kalimat pasif.
AKTIF = S + V + O
                            /
                          /
                        /
      PASIF =  S + To Be + V3
Ket : Objek pada kalimat aktif akan berubah menjadi subjek pada kalimat pasif.
Contoh 1 :
Aktif :
- Julie writes a letter to her friend.
  (Julie menulis sebuah surat untuk temannya.)
Pasif :
- A letter to her friend is written by Julie.
  (Sebuah surat untuk temannya ditulis oleh Julie.)
Contoh 2 :
Aktif :
- The postman will send the letters today.
  (Pak Pos akan mengirim surat-surat hari ini.)
Pasif :
- The letters will be sent by the postman today.
  (Surat-surat akan dikirim oleh Pak Pos hari ini.)
Untu mencari kata kerja bentuk V3, silahkan buka : 
Irregular Verbs

Demikian Pengertian, Struktur, Mengubah Kalimat bentuk Active Voice menjadi Passive Voice, mohon maaf bila ada kesalahan dalam penulisan. Semoga bermanfaat.

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